nonjudgemental way to refer to those who experience same-sex attraction (Bronski,xvii)
describes a social construct of communities that allowed companionship and eroticism to flourish within same-sex cultures.
Homosocial communities emerged during the 18th century around the American Revolutionary War era as it created environments that fostered, accepted, and praised intimate or romantic same-sex friendships. Homosocial communities arose out of the notion of egalitarianism, nationalism, brotherhood, and rational love that contributed to the value and importance of same-sex friendships. See romantic friendships.
used to designate a particular community or group of people as something “different” or “less than” what is considered to be socially and legally acceptable for citizenship.
“Othering” is exercised through systematic oppression and is often used to maintain hierarchical notions of white supremacy. Of course, this is not strictly used in the United States and has been employed globally to create status for the hierarchical elite. According to Bronski, “othering” has had two major effect towards minorities and those within the LGBT community. First, beginning with slavery, “othering” was used to help constructed a legal system that guides the perimeters for citizenship and non citizenship, leading the placement of second-class citizenship (Bronski, 23). Later on this legal system was applied to any marginalized group outside the assumed white heteronormative majority, including immigrants, LGBT, and the like. Second, the acceptance of legalized slavery helped reinforce the mainstream ideas about what is morally and sexually normal amongst society (Bronski, 23). This created many boundaries and consequences through binary language that promoted socially accepted normalcy and frowned upon deviant sexual inferiority. Therefore, “othering” was a way of presuming what was considered to be “less than” human according to Christian theology.
- Throughout historical time, “queer” has changed its meaning, yet always have referred to people, places, or things that are considered to be the opposite of the societal norm. Originally “queer” was used to describe something as “odd,” “strange,” or “quaint.” In the early 18th century, the term “queer” meant something was “bad” or worthless (Bronski, xvii).
- Later on in the 1920’s, “queer” was negatively used as an expression for homosexuals. Today, some LGBTQIAPK communities have politically reclaimed “queer” to challenge the heteronormative mainstream culture (Bronski, xvii).
- Queer is an umbrella term that includes all sexual and gender identities within the LGBTQIAPK (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Queer, Intersex, Asexual, Pansexual, Kink) community (Serrano, 3).
a religious term to depict male anal same-sex activity as a deviant and sinful act (Bronski, xvi). Eventually, sodomite was incorporated in sodomy laws to make homosexual same-sex activity illegal.
sexuality as a social experience within a society during a particular moment of time.
sexology is the scientific study study of human sexual desire that provides language for conceptualizing sexuality, desire, pleasure, and sexual relationships (Bronski, 95).