when an individual crosses over from one dominant hegemonic culture to experience the strange subculture of another. Often times placed in racially and sexually segregated ghettos, in order to excite and unsettle the curiosities of the slummer (Bronski, 121). Slumming was prevalent during the New York’s Harlem Renaissance that drew crowds to the spectacular jazz clubs nightly events. Slumming gave the opportunity for people to experience different ways of being that they were not normally familiar by providing another perspective to cultural difference and the permission to facilitate relationships beyond their own cultural understanding.




Combahee River Collective Statement

Written in 1977 by the Combahee River Collective, a Black lesbian feminist organization from Boston, the statement directly highlighted issues that affected the Queer individuals and collectives within the Black community. It was an incredibly important piece in highlighting the intersectionality of racism, sexism, and homophobia, emphasizing issues not just outside of the Black community, but also within the Black community.


Seen as the assimilation of homosexual (and overall Queer) culture into heteronormative standards and ideals. For example:

  • masculine/feminine binary in Queer relationships
    • butch/femme, top/bottom
  • marriage as the ultimate barrier to equality

Also, it can be seen as the privilege of homosexuality (particularly white, male homosexuality) over other Queer identities. (Stryker)


feminist transphobia

a radical feminist view starting in the early 1970’s that trans women are not actual women, but men using their male privilege to infiltrate women’s spaces.

Some feminists thought that trans women were parodying actual women and “leeching off women,” (Stryker, 101). Trans women were often not welcomed to participate in feminist conferences and organizations during this time. 

Harlem Renaissance

Cultural, social, and artistic period between WWI and the mid-1930’s; prominent in the rise of Black artists, writers, poets, musicians, scholars- also an important factor in early-contemporary Queer culture (especially Black Queer culture). (Garber, “Spectacle In Color”)

  • really, really important to note, as literary and artistic movements are rarely ever based on anything culturally outside of the threshold of White, or Euro-centric
    • let along anything non-White and queerharlem-renaissance-important_7d6c43067a02287b



  • Throughout historical time, “queer” has changed its meaning, yet always have referred to people, places, or things that are considered to be the opposite of the societal norm. Originally “queer” was used to describe something as “odd,” “strange,” or “quaint.” In the early 18th century, the term “queer” meant something was “bad” or worthless (Bronski, xvii).
  • Later on in the 1920’s, “queer” was negatively used as an expression for homosexuals. Today, some LGBTQIAPK communities have politically reclaimed “queer” to challenge the heteronormative mainstream culture (Bronski, xvii). 
  • Queer is an umbrella term that includes all sexual and gender identities within the LGBTQIAPK (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Queer, Intersex, Asexual, Pansexual, Kink) community (Serrano, 3).  


The concept that no form of social oppression are exclusive from each other, and are rather intimately interconnected.

  • sexism is not exclusive from racism
  • homophobia is not exclusive from sexism
  • and such

An important concept to consider is the idealization of Eurocentric, heterosexual, masculine ideal as a specific default; anything outside of that category would be socially oppressed in some form or another, moreso the less it fits into said ideal.