scientia sexualis

scientia sexualis shapes truth through knowledge and power (Foucault, 1978, 57-58).

Foucault states that our civilization is based on this scientia sexualis production of discourse that incorporates confession into the rules of science (Foucault, 1978, 67). This truth of sex operates as it articulates the language of power and transforms sex into discourse, causing the rituals of confession to function within the norms of science, constituted within scientific terminology.



used to designate a particular community or group of people as something “different” or “less than” what is considered to be socially and legally acceptable for citizenship.

“Othering” is exercised through systematic oppression and is often used to maintain hierarchical notions of white supremacy. Of course, this is not strictly used in the United States and has been employed globally to create status for the hierarchical elite. According to Bronski, “othering” has had two major effect towards minorities and those within the LGBT community. First, beginning with slavery, “othering” was used to help constructed a legal system that guides the perimeters for citizenship and non citizenship, leading the placement of second-class citizenship (Bronski, 23). Later on this legal system was applied to any marginalized group outside the assumed white heteronormative majority, including immigrants, LGBT, and the like. Second, the acceptance of legalized slavery helped reinforce the mainstream ideas about what is morally and sexually normal amongst society (Bronski, 23). This created many boundaries and consequences through binary language that promoted socially accepted normalcy and frowned upon deviant sexual inferiority. Therefore, “othering” was a way of presuming what was considered to be “less than” human according to Christian theology. 

sex change

the medical process of surgically change someone’s genitals to those of the opposite sex.

The first accessible sex changes for Americans were brought about in the mid-1960’s during the “Big Science” period of transgender history in the United States. (Stryker, 94)


biological categories based on reproductive differences with sperm producers being ‘male’ and egg producers being ‘female’.

It is also possible for a person to be born with a combination of reproductive traits of both male and female, see intersex. (Stryker, 8)