when an individual crosses over from one dominant hegemonic culture to experience the strange subculture of another. Often times placed in racially and sexually segregated ghettos, in order to excite and unsettle the curiosities of the slummer (Bronski, 121). Slumming was prevalent during the New York’s Harlem Renaissance that drew crowds to the spectacular jazz clubs nightly events. Slumming gave the opportunity for people to experience different ways of being that they were not normally familiar by providing another perspective to cultural difference and the permission to facilitate relationships beyond their own cultural understanding.




used to describe a person who is attraction to others is not limited by sex or gender categories. The use of the identity category pansexual originated in the 1990’s.

“This word ‘pansexual’ was originally coined by Sigmund Freud within his theories on psychoanalysis in the early-to-mid 1900s, but was instead defined as how sexual energy and desire is the basis for all human interaction in life. However the modern usage of ‘pansexual’ has very little to do with Freud’s definition or his psycho-sexuality theories,” (Jakubowski).


used to designate a particular community or group of people as something “different” or “less than” what is considered to be socially and legally acceptable for citizenship.

“Othering” is exercised through systematic oppression and is often used to maintain hierarchical notions of white supremacy. Of course, this is not strictly used in the United States and has been employed globally to create status for the hierarchical elite. According to Bronski, “othering” has had two major effect towards minorities and those within the LGBT community. First, beginning with slavery, “othering” was used to help constructed a legal system that guides the perimeters for citizenship and non citizenship, leading the placement of second-class citizenship (Bronski, 23). Later on this legal system was applied to any marginalized group outside the assumed white heteronormative majority, including immigrants, LGBT, and the like. Second, the acceptance of legalized slavery helped reinforce the mainstream ideas about what is morally and sexually normal amongst society (Bronski, 23). This created many boundaries and consequences through binary language that promoted socially accepted normalcy and frowned upon deviant sexual inferiority. Therefore, “othering” was a way of presuming what was considered to be “less than” human according to Christian theology.